Transfer files with SFTP and rsync in macOS (2023)

You can use SFTP and rsync on a Mac to handle file transfers.

SFTP and rsync are two tools that can help you transfer files across networks and the Internet. Here's how to use them indoorsMacOS.

There are many occasions when you need to transfer files between two computers on a LAN, in the office, over the Internet, or to a remote server. Many employees today use cloud services such as Google Drive or Dropbox for such transfers.

However, more advanced tools are available that give you more flexibility and accuracy in network file transfers. Two of these tools are SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP) and rsync, or remote synchronization.

We'll first discuss SFTP, then look at rsync and how you can use it to intelligently transfer and sync files across networks.


ftp, fromFile Transfer Protocoldates back to 1971 when the original specification was published in RFC 114 and later modified in 1980 during the transition to TCP/IP and in 1994 (RFC 1579) and 1997 (RFC 2228). The last two standards added passive mode and anonymous server logins if the server is configured for it.

FTP follows the client/server model, where users use a client app to log into an FTP server and then use the client app to transfer files to and from the server. The FTP protocol uses two communication channels, one for control and one for data transmission.

Most standard FTP servers use port 21 for connections. Depending on how a server is configured, other ports can be used.

Passive mode was added primarily for servers behind firewalls that can negotiate the port number to use. As soon as a client establishes a connection in passive mode, the server sends the port number to use.

Most FTP connections transfer files to bothTextmodusvonbinary mode, although two other rarely used modes (EBCIDIC and Unicode) are possible.

The glaring omission with standard FTP connections is that all data is sent in clear text both ways –including username and password of the user. Obviously in today's world you want to avoid regular FTP as much as possible.

Enter SFTP

IfSecure Shellwas released to the public in 1994 and provided a way to log into remote UNIX and Linux-based computers through a secure, encrypted tunnel. All data passing through an SSH tunnel is end-to-end encrypted using modern encryption standards such as AES or its older cousin DES.

Other ciphers such as Arcfour and Blowfish can be used but are now being deprecated in favor of AES, the modern standard. SSH userPublic-key infrastructure(PKI) authentication to confirm user identity. AES was originally known by this nameRijndaeland was established in 2001 by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the United States.

SSH File Transfer Protocol (not to be confused with the earlier, now deprecated protocol).Simple file transfer protocol), uses the same end-to-end encryption when transferring files over networks, ensuring file data is safe too.

(Video) How to Transfer Files Between 2 Computers Using SFTP (13/14)

There are four RFCs that define the SSH core protocol (4251-4254), and RFC 4716 defines the SSH PKI key file format. The SFTP file transfer protocol itself is still an IETF concept.

While FTP servers typically use port 21, SFTP connections typically use port 22.

Mac SFTP-Apps

There are several good SFTP clients for macOS, including the free FileZilla (Free,Profi$25 version available on the Mac App Store),To steer($45) from Panic Software in Portland OR, andCyberand(25 $ im Mac App Store).

Cyberduck also offers a cool oneforeign file systemPlugin called Mountain Duck ($40) that integrates with macOS Finder and allows you to mount SFTP servers on your desktop as if they were a hard drive.

Cyberduck and Transmit also support WebDAV and a range of cloud file servers such as Amazon S3, Dropbox, Google Drive, Microsoft OneDrive and Backblaze. Transmit also supports another secure FTP standard: FTP with TLS/SSL.

In the connection window, under Send, clickProtocol:Popup menu in each connection window to switch to SFTP. When you do that, you'll also see a small button with a key icon that you can use to set up your local SSH keys for the connection.

In the Transfer Connection window, set the protocol, server name, user and password, and passive mode.

All of these SFTP apps are great, but Transmit has long been considered the gold standard on the Mac, and in fact, Transmit dates back to the late 1990s and Mac OS 9. In 1996, Apple released its own FTP client: called appCyberhundfor Mac OS 9, which is long gone.

CyberDog was an unfortunate victim of Apple's fateOpenDocDocument-based architecture from the late 1990s.

Cyberdog, by Apple around 1996.

Finds FTP connections

Many people don't know that Finders lets you connect to most popular FTP serversGo to -> Connect to Serverwindow ofmain menu.

Just use the prefix ftp:// and the name or IP number of an FTP server. If prompted for a username and password, enter your credentials to connect.

Use the ftp:// protocol in the Finder Connect to Server window.

(Video) Mac OS X - How to Share Files Remotely with SSH and SFTP

Unfortunately, macOS's Connect to Server feature doesn't currently support SFTP connections - something that was long overdue from Apple.

An alternative to the command line is to use MacFUSE and SSHFS to transfer files via SSH in the terminal. You can usehouse brewto install both:

brew install osxfuse sshfs

For the sshfs terminal usage guide in terminal type:

mand sshfsand busyyield.

If the server supports anonymous connections in the Finder Connect to Server dialog, you can use your email address and leave the password field blank, or use "anonymous" as the password.

If you want to connect to a free public FTP test server, try Apple's old archive server

Once connected, Finder mounts the remote FTP server on your desktop like any other network drive. Please note that with all file transfers from and to an FTP server, the file data is transferred unencrypted.

Apple's Asimov FTP server. You will be greeted with a "pub" or public folder.

In most commercial FTP apps available, using file transfers is fairly simple: just drag and drop files and folders from your Mac onto a connected server's window and the file transfer will begin.

To move files the other way - from the server to your Mac - just do the reverse: drag files or folders from the connected server's FTP window to a drive, folder or the desktop on your in one of the apps Mac.

Some apps, such as FileZilla, display a progress bar as the file transfer progresses, along with a text log showing all activity in the transfer window. Others, such as Transmit, show a separate task window where each task runs in a separate thread with a progress bar.

Threaded apps run smoother and aborted transfers tend to be more responsive.

As a footnote, please note that some FTP servers limit the maximum numbersimultaneouslyConnect from the same client or IP address. If the server you are connecting to has such limits, set the same limit in your client app. If you don't do this and attempt multiple simultaneous transfers over the set limit, the server will likely terminate your FTP app after you initiate the transfer - and you'll have to start over.

In Transmit, this option is in the app's settings window under the "Transmissions" tab:

(Video) What Is SFTP?

Set the maximum number of file transfers in the transmit settings.

Sync files with rsync

The Linux/UNIX commandrsyncmade his debut in 1996 as part of a doctoral thesis. PhD thesis by Andrew Tridgell. Since then it has been ported to many modern operating systems including macOS, OpenBSD and Cygwin on Windows.

The rsync website is located at, is currently open source and maintained by Wayne Davidson on GitHub. There is also a sample page with example bash scripts that use rsync as a backup tool.

rsync can also run in daemon (background) mode, allowing the use of the rsync:// protocol syntax in apps that support it at runtime.

One of the most powerful uses of rsync is to automatically create incremental backups of computers or hard drives at specified time intervals. Not only does it know how to transfer new or changed files, but it also knows which parts of the files have changed and, if possible, only transfers the updated parts.

On macOS, rsync works from the command line in Terminal and generally uses SSH to connect and transfer files between networked computers.

A typical rsync command consists of the command followed by a space, then the file to be copied or updated, followed by the username and the IP address or name of the server, separated by the @ symbol, followed by a Space, then the remote file or folder location on the server to which to transfer the file or folder.

For example,rsync /users/i7/filename[email protected]:remove filenamesends a file named "filename" in the i7 user's home directory on a Mac to the remote server "remotehost" using a username and the SSH keys currently installed on the Mac. The remote host can be a server name or an IP address.

In most cases, the source file or directory is specified first in the command and the destination at the end. If you're syncing files the other way - from a server to your local computer - you use the same command but with the file syntax reversed.

For the full syntax and available options for rsync in the terminal, type:

mand rsyncand busyyield.


Use the homebrew package manager formula in the terminal to install rsync on macOS:

brew installer rsync

Use the update command to keep rsync up to date in homebrew:

brew update rsync

(Video) How to use SFTP Commands to Copy Files to/from a Server

Once the installation is complete, verify your rsync installation in the terminal by typing:

i am rsyncand pressyield.

You should see this:


You can see what version of rsync is installed on your Mac by typing:

rsync-vand pressyield.

You should see something like this:

rsync Version 2.6.9 Protokollversion 29

Copyright (C) 1996-2006 by Andrew Tridgell, Wayne Davison and others.

Functions: 64-bit files, socket pairs, hard links, symbolic links, batch files,

Inplace, IPv6, 64-bit systems, 64-bit internals

This is followed by more information and any rsync options printed in the terminal.

Several other rsync homebrew formulas are available, including the handy onersync-time-backup. Use Homebrew's search box to find them.

Writing a full backup script is beyond the scope of this article, but it would essentially require you to write a terminal script in bash shell syntax that uses rsync and save it to a .sh file. You would then occasionally run the script with a scheduled UNIX cron job or via a daemon running in the background.

You can also write a backup script and then run it manually by simply dragging and dropping it into a terminal window and pressingyield.

With the rsync syntax as a source parameter, you can easily specify files, directories, or entire volumes. You can use rsync to backup to another local device, network server or internet server.

There are also several third-party backup apps based on rsync, such as and Grsync, a GUI frontend for rsync.

Using rsync as a backup mechanism makes backup a breeze and is smart enough to manage most backup details for you.

You no longer have to worry about which files and folders have changed, which files are new, and which should be excluded from the backup because they haven't changed.

(Video) Transferring Files With sftp


Is rsync a SFTP? ›

An SFTP client or rsync allows you to transfer unlimited data server-to-server, which is faster than transferring from your workstation. Files can be transferred to and from any Pantheon site environment (Dev, Test, and Live).

Does SCP work on Mac? ›

In the Terminal app on your Mac, use the scp command to copy a file or folder to or from a remote computer. scp uses the same underlying protocols as ssh . You're prompted for the user's password.

What is the difference between rsync and SFTP? ›

rsync performs (2x) faster copying than sftp . sftp was achieving around 700 kbps while rsync transfers the data at a rate north of 1.4 Mbps. I know that SFTP and SCP uses the same SSH connection for transferring files. So, does this imply rsync is much (2x) faster than SCP which uses SSH under the hood?

How do I transfer files using SFTP? ›

File Transfer using SFTP: 5 Easy Steps
  1. Step 1: Generating SSH Keys.
  2. Step 2: Copying SSH Keys to a Remote Server.
  3. Step 3: Initiating an SFTP Connection.
  4. Step 4: Transferring Files from Remote Servers to Local Systems.
  5. Step 5: Transferring Files from Local Systems to Remote Servers.
Jun 7, 2021

Which is better rsync or SFTP? ›

Rsync faster than scp or sftp? By transferring less data, rsync is considerably more useful when dealing with slow or small bandwidth network connections. However, it has no advantage over other file transfer protocols such as ftp or scp when copying new files between systems.

Why is rsync faster than SFTP? ›

Only transferring what has changed makes rsync deploys an order of magnitude faster than traditional SFTP deploys where everything is uploaded. rsync also has the ability to compress files during transfer, making it even more efficient.

How do I use SFTP on Mac? ›

How do I use SSH and SFTP on Mac OS X/macOS?
  1. Select Shell then New Remote Connection... from the top menu.
  2. Under the Server column, click on the + icon to add a new connection.
  3. Enter the hostname when prompted by the dialog.
  4. Enter your username (usually UIC NetID) in the User field and click Connect.
Jan 15, 2021

What is WinSCP for Mac? ›

What is WinSCP for Mac and Why Alternative? WinSCP is client software that transfers files in a secured manner between the remote host and local computer. It mainly uses FTP (File Transfer Protocol), SFTP (SSH FTP), SCP (Secure copy protocol), Amazon S3, WebDAV client protocols.

Should I use SCP or rsync? ›

There are various other options that you can make use of while copying the files and doing the remote administration. The conclusion is, rsync is good for incremental transfers and for taking the backup while scp is good while securely pushing or pulling the small file from or to the remote nodes.

What is the best alternative to rsync? ›

Rsync Alternatives
  • Git Push. Git is an open-source version control system that allows for better handling of projects. ...
  • WebDAV. Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (or WebDav for short) is an extension a HTTP protocol that is used to share, edit and transfer files between users through a web servers. ...
  • FTP. ...
  • FTPS. ...
  • SFTP.

Why do people still use SFTP? ›

SFTP achieves file transfer compliance for industry regulations that protect how personal information is used. Keep data safe. SFTP provides security for data in transit to make sure hackers and unauthorized users can't access a user's data.

What is the difference between SCP and SFTP? ›

When comparing SCP vs SFTP in terms of speed, i.e., in transferring files, SCP is generally much faster. This is due to the way it confirms received packets. Traditionally, SFTP has to ACK (acknowledge) every tiny packet, while SCP does not. That's why the disparity becomes more evident in high latency networks.

Can you use FileZilla for SFTP? ›

FileZilla is a free and open source Secure File Transfer ( SFTP ) program for Linux, MacOS and Windows. It allows you to securely upload and download files between the Pressable servers and your computer.

Does anyone still use SFTP? ›

Three common protocols still used in file transfer today are FTP, FTPS and SFTP. While the acronyms for these protocols are similar, there are some key differences among them, in particular how data is exchanged, the level of security provided and firewall considerations.

What are the weaknesses of SFTP? ›

SFTP doesn't manage cross-script vulnerability. FTP transfers are often automated, as is SFTP. However, because automation scripts and applications can sometimes expose data outside of the SFTP application, they provide an attack surface for hackers.

Is there anything faster than rsync? ›

Through real-time data synchronization and other key functionality, Resilio Connect scales-out data movement in parallel over any network, efficiently scaling transfer performance up to 20x faster than rsync.

Which is the fastest file sharing method? ›

The 4 Fastest Ways to Transfer Files From One Computer to Another
  1. Use a USB 3.2 Gen 2x2 External SSD or Faster. ...
  2. Use an M. ...
  3. Share Files via a Local Area Network. ...
  4. Save Files on a Cloud Drive. ...
  5. Connect Your Phone Using a Cable. ...
  6. Use Apple AirDrop. ...
  7. Transfer Files Using Mobile Apps. ...
  8. Use a microSD Card.
Feb 21, 2023

What is the file limit for rsync? ›

Each time the sync is run, Folder B will be limited to the newest 10GB of files from Folder A with older files being discarded.

What is the fastest secure file transfer protocol? ›

FASP® – which standards for Fast, Adaptive, and Secure Protocol – is the fastest, most secure high-speed file transfer technology available today. Continue reading to learn about the differences between TCP, UDP, and FASP, and why you should consider implementing IBM's Aspera for your big data transferring needs.

Does MacOS support SFTP? ›

It's a protocol that allows you to easily transfer files from one computer to another when not directly connected to it through a network. SFTP is built into MacOS and requires that you enable it with a few tweaks in System Preferences and maybe an adjustment to your home router settings.

Does MacOS have SFTP client? ›

Using an SFTP on Mac

Mac users can access SSH file transfers via the Mac SFTP Terminal application. Found in Settings, the Terminal opens a Unix prompt on the desktop. Using Terminal, you can access remote servers and conduct secure file transfers.

What port does SFTP use on Mac? ›

To set up the SFTP server correctly, you will need to connect to the web server via the Internet with the “Correct SFTP port” setting (usually it is port 22), redirected to the server from your firewall and the SFTP / Daemon installation service and installed on the system.

Is there a PuTTY for Mac? ›

PuTTY is a free, open-source SSH and telnet client. It's a classic Windows application, but developers have made it available to Mac users, too.

Is SCP free to use? ›

SCP is licensed under a Creative Commons copyright license. A CC license allows people other than the author to share, use, and build a creative work for free and without legal consequences. With this license, anyone can create products from the SCP brand.

How do you transfer files in Mac terminal? ›

In the Terminal app on your Mac, use the mv command to move files or folders from one location to another on the same computer. The mv command moves the file or folder from its old location and puts it in the new location.

Is WinSCP and SFTP same? ›

Free Award-Winning File Manager. WinSCP is a popular SFTP client and FTP client for Microsoft Windows!

Can you install WinSCP on Mac? ›

WinSCP is only a Windows-only program and does not support another operating system like macOS. It supports several features that come with the Windows OS such as dragging and dropping files.

Why WinSCP is better than FileZilla? ›

Supported Platform: WinSCP is limited to only Microsoft Windows, whereas FileZilla supports all platforms, including Windows, Linux, macOS. With WinSCP, you can run your application on Linux with the help of its different versions, but it supports limited functions.

Is scp obsolete? ›

The scp protocol is outdated, inflexible and not readily fixed.

How do I transfer files using rsync? ›

How to use Rsync to copy or sync files between your servers?
  1. The default syntax of file transfer using rsync is very simple. rsync [option] [source] [destination] ...
  2. To send files from local source to a remote server, you may follow this format. ...
  3. It is also possible to send files from a remote origin to a local server.

What is the scp equivalent of rsync? ›

Secure Copy (SCP) uses SSH to copy only the files or directories that you select. On first use, Rsync copies all files and directories and then it copies only the files and directories that you have changed. It does not copy all the files and directories again.

What are the drawbacks of rsync? ›

One of the slower parts of rsync is that when it's synchronized, the files in the local directory are compared to the files on the server, so that when compared, it updates only the different files there, the same files will skip directly, and if the number of files to sync is very large, this comparison process is ...

Does robocopy work like rsync? ›

Robocopy is a robust file copying program built into Windows similar to UNIX rsync.

Is rsync over the Internet safe? ›

However, the rsync daemon does not encrypt traffic. This means that an rsync process can potentially be sniffed in transit by a third party, granting them access to whatever information is being transferred. Therefore, rsync operations happening openly across the internet are extremely vulnerable to data exposure.

What is a faster alternative to SFTP? ›

SCP is usually much faster than SFTP at transferring files, especially on high latency networks. This happens because SCP implements a more efficient transfer algorithm, one which does not require waiting for packet acknowledgement, unlike SFTP.

Why is SFTP not secure? ›

SFTP provides a form of encryption in transit through an SSH tunnel, however the encryption ends when the data reaches the client or the server. If a user uploads a file to be sent / retrieved via an SFTP connection, the data is not encrypted while it waits for the client to connect and pull the data down.

What is more secure than SFTP? ›


Because SFTP and FTPS implement strong algorithms like AES and Triple DES to encrypt any data transferred, they both offer a high level of protection.

What is the file size limit for SFTP? ›

SFTP supports very large files - the theoretical maximum file size supported by the SFTP protocol is 2^63 bytes, which is 9,223,372,036,854,775,807, or 9,223,372 TB. However, in practice, the maximum file size might be limited by the underlying filesystem.

Which is faster SFTP or SCP? ›

Both offer the ability to transfer files, and SCP does so faster than SFTP for high latency networks, as it doesn't authenticate every packet, using its own transfer algorithm. The only real pro for SCP – the speed of transfer.

Why is SFTP so slow? ›

SFTP will almost always be significantly slower than FTP or FTPS (usually by several orders of magnitude). The reason for the difference is that there is a lot of additional packet, encryption and handshaking overhead inherent in the SSH2 protocol that FTP doesn't have to worry about.

What is SFTP for dummies? ›

SFTP is primarily used for uploading or downloading files between a local computer and a remote one. The remote computer can be located in another building, city, or even in another continent across the globe. SFTP file transfers can be carried out between a client (controlled by a user) and a server.

What is SFTP in layman's terms? ›

SFTP, or Secure File Transfer Protocol, is a secure file transfer protocol that uses secure shell encryption to provide a high level of security for sending and receiving file transfers. SFTP is similar to FTPS in that it uses AES and other algorithms to secure data as it travels between different systems.

How do I know if SFTP is working? ›

  1. Download and install the SFTP client software to the desktop.
  2. Create a test HTML file to upload during these tests: Copy and paste the following into a text file: <body > <p>This is a test file used during SFTP tests.</p> </body> Save the text file as "test. ...
  3. Start Putty, "psftp.exe", from the desktop.

Does FileZilla work on Mac? ›

Installing FileZilla/FileZilla Pro on Mac is easy. Open your Downloads folder. Typically you can do this by selecting Go > Downloads from the main menu. Find the FileZilla/FileZilla Pro installation file.

How do I transfer files using FileZilla on Mac? ›

Select all the files you wish to transfer (hold Ctrl and click the files you need, or to select all files in the folder, hold Ctrl + a) and then drag the selected files across to the lower right quadrant, which will copy them onto the FTP server.

Why can't FileZilla connect to SFTP? ›

Incorrect FTP Port Number

Generally, a secured FileZilla port number is considered as 22. Hence, to use a secured file transfer protocol (SFTP), you should change the default port number to 22. An incorrect port number can be a reason for getting the error message, could not connect to server in FileZilla.

What protocol does rsync use? ›

Rsync supports other key features that aid significantly in data transfers or backup. They include compression and decompression of data block by block using zlib, and support for protocols such as ssh and stunnel.

Is rsync using SSH? ›

Note: When working with remote systems, make sure you have SSH access to the remote system. Rsync establishes the connection using SSH in order to enable file transfer.

What protocol type is SFTP? ›

Secure File Transfer Protocol (SFTP) is a network protocol for securely accessing, transferring and managing large files and sensitive data. Designed by the Internet Engineering Task Force as an extension of Secure Shell (SSH), SFTP enables access, transfer and management of files over a network.

Is rsync a file transfer protocol using SSH? ›

Rsync stands for "Remote Sync." The rsync command lets you transfer and synchronize data between different machines and directories. Using the Secure Shell (SSH) protocol, you can copy your files securely to another location.

What are the limitations of rsync? ›

The main limitation is it does not handle remote source or target directory, they must be locally accessible (local disk, nfs/cifs/other mountpoint)." This particular wrapper is simple to install, consisting of a single Python file.

What is better than rsync? ›

FreeFileSync. FreeFileSync is a folder comparison and synchronization software that creates and manages backup copies of all your important files. Instead of copying every file every time, FreeFileSync determines the differences between a source and a target folder and transfers only the minimum amount of data needed.

Does SFTP always use SSH? ›

SFTP cannot exist without SSH — SFTP uses SSH as the binding agent to transfer files securely. In other words, SSH protocol is used in the file transfer mechanism SFTP. In fact, most SSH servers include SFTP capabilities. However, not all SFTP servers support SSH commands and actions.

Does Mac use SSH? ›

Turn on Remote Login to access your Mac from another computer using SSH (Secure Shell Protocol) or SFTP (SSH File Transfer Protocol).

How to SFTP on Mac? ›

How do I use SSH and SFTP on Mac OS X/macOS?
  1. Select Shell then New Remote Connection... from the top menu.
  2. Under the Server column, click on the + icon to add a new connection.
  3. Enter the hostname when prompted by the dialog.
  4. Enter your username (usually UIC NetID) in the User field and click Connect.
Jan 15, 2021

Is SFTP still being used? ›

The most common protocols used in file transfer today are FTP, FTPS, and SFTP. Discover the key differences between these protocols online at JSCAPE. Three common protocols still used in file transfer today are FTP, FTPS and SFTP.

What port is needed for SFTP? ›

SFTP port number is the SSH port 22 (follow the link to see how it got that number). It is basically just an SSH server. Only once the user has logged in to the server using SSH can the SFTP protocol be initiated. There is no separate SFTP port exposed on servers.

What is the difference between rsync over SSH and Rsyncd? ›

They are generally used for completely different things. rsync over ssh is usually used for backups, or syncing servers over the internet. rsyncd is usually used for things like software mirrors, so it makes more sense to compare rsyncd to a plain HTTP or FTP mirror or even bittorrent.

What port is used by rsync? ›

(Port 873 is the normal port for an rsync daemon.) The -N option tells ssh not to start a shell on the remote system, which works with modern ssh versions (you can run a sleep command if -N doesn't work).

What is the difference between SSH and rsync? ›

Secure Copy (SCP) uses SSH to copy only the files or directories that you select. On first use, Rsync copies all files and directories and then it copies only the files and directories that you have changed. It does not copy all the files and directories again.


1. How to Transfer Files with Rsync over SSH
(Research Rocks)
2. How to Use rsync to Reliably Copy Files Fast (many examples)
(Tony Teaches Tech)
3. Linux/Mac Terminal Tutorial: How To Use The rsync Command - Sync Files Locally and Remotely
(Corey Schafer)
4. How to use sftp command
5. How to manually transfer files via SFTP in Linux server?
(Red Server Host)
6. Remote File Backups Using Terminal RSYNC & SCP to Copy Files Remotely
(Apple Ninja)


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