Attitude: nature, components and training!
The following are salient features that contribute to the importance of attitudes:
1. Attitudes refer to the feelings and beliefs of individuals or groups of individuals. For example "He has a bad attitude", "I like his attitude".
2. Feelings and beliefs are directed toward other people, objects, or ideas. When someone says "I like my job". It shows that you have a positive attitude towards your work.
3. Attitudes often result from and influence people's behavior or actions. Settings can lead to intended behavior without outside intervention.
4. Attitudes are a psychological phenomenon that cannot be directly observed. However, an attitude can be observed indirectly by observing its consequences. For example, if a person is very regular at his job, we can conclude that he really likes his job.
5. Attitudes are acquired gradually over time. The attitudinal learning process begins in childhood and continues throughout a person's life. First, family members can have a greater influence on a child's attitude.
6. Attitudes are statements of judgment, whether positive or negative. When a person says he likes or dislikes something or someone, he is expressing an attitude.
7. All people, regardless of status and intelligence, have attitudes.
8. A posture can be held unconsciously. Most of our attitudes can be related to those we are not clearly aware of. Prejudice is a good example.
Attitudes consist of three basic components: emotional, informational, and behavioral.
These three components are described below:
1.Informative or cognitive component:
The information component consists of beliefs, values, ideas, and other information that a person has about the object. It does not matter whether this information is empirically correct or factual. For example, a job seeker may know from his own sources and from other employees working at the company that the prospects for promotion at a particular company are very good. In fact, it may or may not be right. However, the information that this person uses is critical to their attitude towards this job and this company.
2.Emotional or affective component:
The informational component sets the stage for the most critical part of an attitude, its affective component. Emotional components include a person's feeling or affect – positive, neutral or negative – about an object. This component can be explained by this statement: "I like this job because the future perspectives in this company are very good."
The behavioral component consists of a person's tendency to behave in a certain way in relation to an object. For example, in the case mentioned above, the person concerned may decide to accept the position because of the good future prospects. Of the three attitudinal components, only the behavioral component can be observed directly. One cannot see another person's beliefs (the informational component) and their feelings (the emotional component). These two components can only be inferred. Still, understanding these two components is essential for studying organizational behavior or the behavioral component of attitudes.
The components are shown in the table below:
The three attitude components discussed above form the so-called ABC model. Here in the ABC model, the alphabet A represents the affective component, B the behavioral component and C the cognitive component. The importance of this model is that the three components above must be properly evaluated in order to properly and completely understand the concept of contracting. Only the behavioral component is directly observable, while the other two components, affective and cognitive, can only be inferred.
Creation/sources of attitudes:
Attitudes refer to the feelings and beliefs of “individuals or groups of individuals. But the question is, how did these feelings and beliefs develop? The point emphasized by many people is that attitudes are acquired, not inherited. A person acquires these attitudes from various sources.
Attitudes are acquired, but are not important sources of attitude acquisition, as discussed below:
1. Direct personal experience:
A person's direct experience with the attitude object determines his attitude towards it. An individual's personal experiences, whether favorable or unfavorable, will profoundly influence their attitude. These attitudes, based on personal experience, are difficult to change.
For example, a person joins a new job recommended by a friend. But when you go into work, you find your work repetitive, the bosses too harsh and the co-workers not so cooperative, you would develop a negative attitude towards your work because the quality of your direct experience with the work is negative.
Sometimes a person finds a new attitude object that may be associated with an old attitude object. In that case, the configuration from the old configuration object can be transferred to the new configuration object. For example, if a new employee spends most of his time in the company of an employee who is in the manager's good books and with whom the manager has a positive attitude, the manager is likely to develop a positive attitude toward the new employee. worker too. Therefore, the positive attitude of the old worker was transferred to the new worker due to the association between the old and the new worker.
3. Family and groups of friends:
Attitudes like values are acquired by parents, teachers, and peer group members. In our early years, we begin to shape our attitudes toward those we admire, respect, or even fear. We watch how our family and friends behave and shape our attitudes and behaviors to align with theirs. We also do it without telling ourselves and even without direct experience. Likewise, attitudes are acquired from peer groups in universities and organizations. For example, if visiting "Hot Millions" or "Domino's" is correct, you are likely to maintain that attitude. If your parents support a political party without telling them, you automatically start to favor that party.
The neighborhood we live in has distinct cultural institutions, religious groups, and ethnic differences. Also, there are people who are neighbors. These people can be northerners, southerners, etc. People from different cultures have different attitudes and behaviors. Some of them we accept and others we deny and we can rebel against them. Conformity or rebellion in some respect is evidence of the attitudes we hold.
5. Economic situation and professions:
The individual's economic situation and professional position also affect the formation of his attitude. Our socioeconomic environment influences our current and future attitudes. Research has shown that unemployment disrupts old religious and economic values. Children of the professional class tend to be conservative. Respecting the laws of the country is associated with a longer higher education.
6. Mass Communication:
Settings are often less stable than values. For example, advertising messages try to change people's attitudes towards a particular product or service. For example, if the people at Hyundai Santro can make you feel positive about their cars, that attitude might lead to a desirable (for them) behavior: buying a Santro car.
All these sources can be illustrated with the help of the following figure:
- Social Attitude and Cognition (FAQ)
- attitude essay
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The key to good posture is the position of your spine. Your spine has three natural curves - at your neck, mid back, and low back. Correct posture should maintain these curves, but not increase them. Your head should be above your shoulders, and the top of your shoulder should be over the hips.What are 5 factors that influence posture? ›
Several factors contribute to poor posture--most commonly, stress, obesity, pregnancy, weak postural muscles, abnormally tight muscles, and high-heeled shoes.What are the 5 types of posture? ›
- Healthy Posture.
- #2. Kyphosis.
- #3. Lordosis.
- #4. Flat Back.
- #5. Forward Head.
Postural control involves the vestibular system, vision, and proprioception. From these three systems there is back and forth communication with the brain and the body to produce stability or mobility.What are the 4 principles of good posture? ›
-Standing straight with stomach muscles pulled in. -Shoulders relaxed and pulled back. -Weight balanced equally on each foot and aligned with the shoulders. -Chest and chin held up.What factors affect posture? ›
As we get older, bad habits such as slouching and inactivity cause muscle fatigue and tension that ultimately lead to poor posture. The complications of poor posture include back pain, spinal dysfunction, joint degeneration, rounded shoulders and a potbelly.How do you describe posture? ›
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- Static posture- the body and its segments are aligned and maintained in certain positions. Examples include standing, sitting, lying, and kneeling.
- Dynamic posture- the body or its segments are moving—walking, running, jumping, throwing, and lifting.
- Back pain.
- Random aches and pains in your joints and muscles.
- Feelings of muscle fatigue.
- Rounded shoulders.
- Developing a potbelly.
- Having a head that either leans forward or backward.
- Curved neck.
- Increased Confidence.
- More Energy.
- Greater Self-Esteem and Better Mood.
- Easier Breathing.
- Less Frequent Headaches.
- Reduced Risk of Injury.
- Boosted Productivity.
- If You Sit at a Desk All Day.
What system is responsible for posture? ›
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- Keep your back straight. Slouching creates a curved spine, which puts pressure on your back. ...
- Keep your shoulders back. Just like a slouchy back, when our shoulders are forward, we put undue stress on our shoulder muscles. ...
- Strengthen your core. ...
- Tuck your tailbone. ...
- Keep your chin up.